BI 101. GENERAL BIOLOGY I
Lecture material will be derived from the concepts presented in the text. BI 101 will focus upon basic biochemistry and the structure and function of the principle biomolecules; cell structure and function, membrane characteristics and the transport of material across the cell membrane; cell division including the process of fission, mitosis, and meiosis; the structure of DNA and the process of protein synthesis; basic Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics. Laboratory topics will complement lecture material as well as include use of the scientific method activities as a means of reinforcing lecture material and preparing for an original research project to be conducted at the end of BI 102.
BI 102. GENERAL BIOLOGY II
This course is a continuation of BI 101. Lecture material will be derived from the concepts presented in the text. BI 102 will focus upon evolutionary principles including selection, speciation, phylogeny and homology; ecological principles including population and community dynamics, niche theory, competition, trophic levels and symbiosis; and the structure and functioning of specific organ systems. Laboratory topics will complement lecture material as well as include use of the scientific method activities as a means of reinforcing lecture material and preparing for an original research project to be conducted at the end of the semester.
BI 103. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND SYSTEMATICS I
The course and BI 104 will focus on the coverage of the different taxonomic groups of living organisms. A brief consideration of taxonomy, systematics, and evolution will be presented followed by a detailed coverage of the different groups of living organisms. The course will stress the fundamental differences and similarities among the different groups especially with respect to how each group solves problems that are the basic necessities for life.
BI 104. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND SYSTEMATICS II
The course is a continuation of BI 103 and will focus on the coverage of the different taxonomic groups of living organisms. A brief consideration of the taxonomy, systematics, and evolution will be presented followed by a detailed coverage of the different groups of living organisms. The course will stress the fundamental differences and similarities among the different groups expecially with respect to how each group solves problems that are the basic necessities for life.
BI 192 AND BI 193. INDEPENDENT RESEARCH
0—4—2 TO 0–6–3
These courses are for rising third classmen pursuing research during the summer. Permission of instructor and department head required.
BI 201. BIOSTATISTICS
An introduction to the analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data acquired from biological research. This applied statistics course will help students develop an understanding of descriptive statistics, probability theory, statistical interference, and hypothesis testing by working with real data. The emphasis will be on application rather than theory. Statistical tests that will be covered include: t-tests, Chi-square, regression, analysis of variance, and nonparametric. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 204. PHYSIOLOGY
The course involves a systematic study of how animals regulate their internal environment and respond and adapt to changes in their external environment. Emphasis will be on mammalian physiology. The laboratory component will stress the assessment of physiologic phenomena through data collection and analysis. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 205. GENETICS
An introductory study in genetics beginning with the work of Mendel and progressing through modern molecular techniques. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the flow of biologic information from DNA to proteins and the mechanisms of genetic change. The laboratory component includes experiments in karyotpying, gene transfer, restriction digest of DNA, DNA fingerprinting, and PCR, as well as crosses with fruit flies and plants. Prerequisites: Proficiency in BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 215. NUTRITION
Designed to make students think about their food choices and the impact of those choices on their health. Basic concepts of nutrition including, nutrient digestion, absorption, and transport, energy balance, diet planning, and vitamin and mineral requirements will be discussed. Particular attention will be focused on the role of nutrition in the development of chronic diseases. Students will use computer software to analyze their diets and to develop balanced meal plans for themselves and others. No prerequisites.
BI 216. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
A general introduction to the study of animal behavior. Topics to be covered will include: development of behavior, neural and hormonal control of behavior, learning, aggression, and migration. Particular emphasis will be placed on the interpretation of behavior and research methods. Students will design and conduct a research project and present their projects to the class. Prerequisites: BI 101, 102, or permission of the instructor.
BI 217. GENERAL BOTANY
An introduction to the biology of plants. Plant structure and functioning including the anatomy of tissues, physiology, ecology, systematics and the evolution of non-flowering and flowering plants will be presented in the course. The course will emphasize vascular plants with additional coverage of algae and fungi. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 218X. BIOLOGY OF GENDER
Biology of Gender is designed to provide a general overview of reproduction methods in a variety of living organisms including humans. The course will focus on a number of relevant issues including but not restricted to how the body functions and how male and female health can be affected by social and environmental factors. Topics covered may include anatomy, development, asexual reproduction, general and reproductive health issues, hormone changes throughout life, contraception, pregnancy, STDs, men’s and women’s health in developing countries and eating disorders, and how humans use biotechnology to manipulate reproduction to produce human pharmaceuticals.
BI 219. CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
This course is an introduction to the principles and modern practice of Conservation Biology. Lectures will be focused on examining the biological implementation and consequences of conservation, wildlife management, and ecosystem processes. Laboratory activities will not only explore the primary literature focused on recent developments in biodiversity studies, but will be focused on the application of population assessment models to biological datasets. Select field trips to local restoration and conservation areas will enhance an understanding of applying these conservation principles to modern global dilemmas. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 240. BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN WARFARE AND TERRORISM
This course will cover the types of biological agents that may be used in warfare or employed by terrorists. The effects of these bacteria and viruses have on humans, animals, crop production, and the economy will be discussed. We will begin with a discussion of the use of biological weapons throughout history and the current status of weaponized bacteria and viruses. We will conclude by covering the future of biological as weapons including manipulation of current pathogens to maximize their destructive threat.
BI 245X. EPIDEMICS AND SOCIETY
This course will examine the relationships between devastating disease outbreaks and the evolution of human societies. Classic epidemics such as the “Black Death” of the Middle Ages and the Irish Potato Famine will be analyzed and also compared to modern challenges such as HIV AIDS and Influenza. The course will utilize both text and primary sources to demonstrate the powerful relationship between invisible microbial pathogens and the development of today’s political and religious landscape. Civilizations and Cultures (X).
BI 290 AND BI 291. INDEPENDENT RESEARCH
0—4—2 TO 0—6—3
These courses are for third classmen pursuing research during the fall and/or spring semesters. Permission of instructor and department head required.
BI 292 AND BI 293. INDEPENDENT RESEARCH
0—4—2 TO 0—8—4
These courses are for rising second classmen pursuing research during the summer. Permission of instructor and department head required.
BI 303. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
The normal development of organisms with a comparative description and analysis of the general principles governing growth and development. Laboratory work emphasizes embryology of the frog, chick, and pig. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 304. COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE MORPHOLOGY
This course involves detailed study of the different anatomical systems of the vertebrates. Evolutionary relationships among the groups and functional interpretations of anatomy are stressed. When offered BI 304 may serve as a substitution for or addition to BI 303 Developmental Biology. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 311. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS
This course is focused on the biological, chemical, and physical processes driving the interaction and interdependence of organisms in aquatic and marine communities. Lectures will be focused on the application of basic ecological theory and principles to an aquatic habitat, life cycles, and adaptations of organisms important in these systems, and a broad foundation of current issues related to these communities. Laboratory and field-based activities will cover important techniques to collect and analyze information, and a deeper and more practical understanding of the intricacies of local and regional aquatic habitats. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 312. ECOLOGY
The course is designed to show the interaction and interdependence of all organisms in the biological community. The basic principles of ecology, illustrating how living organisms develop communities. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 313. MICROBIOLOGY
A survey of the biology of microorganisms encompassing their diversity, structure, metabolism, pathogenesis, and ecology. A primary focus will be on medical and veterinary pathogens, including viruses, and the molecular basis of disease. Laboratory exercises will cover identification and manipulation of bacteria and single-celled eukaryotes. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 316. MAMMALOGY
This course examines the evolutionary origins of mammals within the context of other vertebrate lineages, and surveys the anatomy, natural history, ecology, and conservation of the major groups of mammals. Laboratory focuses on techniques used to study mammals, including capture and handling techniques, specimen preparation and curation, and identification of skeletal material and study skins, with emphasis on the mammals of Virginia. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 317. HERPETOLOGY
This course examines the evolutionary origins of reptiles and amphibians within the context of other vertebrate lineages, and surveys the anatomy, natural history, ecology, and conservation of the major groups. Laboratory focuses on studying anatomy, observing reptiles and amphibians in the field, capture and handling techniques, and identification of native specimens, with emphasis on reptiles and amphibians of Virginia. Cadets will be required to keep field notes and compile a collection of photographic specimens. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 321. INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
The course will cover the general form and function, life histories, ecology and evolution of the major invertebrate phyla. An emphasis will be placed on animals which are representative of their particular group and those that affect the lives of humans. Laboratories will focus on observation of slides and prepared specimens, and dissection of representative organisms. Observation and collection of animals in the field in both freshwater and marine environments will also be required. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 322. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
This course explores physiological mechanisms that plants use to acquire resources, grow and develop, and defend against enemy attack. Class discussions include critical evaluation of research literature. Lab experiments introduce students to current physiological, biochemical, and molecular tools, culminating in an original research project. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 323. EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY
This course will examine how the body responds and adapts to exercise. It will focus on a study of the metabolic, muscular, cardiovascular, and respiratory changes associated with both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Emphasis will be placed on the application of our physiologic understanding of exercise to developing training programs and improving performance. The laboratory component will introduce students to state of art equipment used to assess different components of fitness. Data collection and analysis will be emphasized. Prerequisites: BI 101 and 102 or permission of instructor.
BI 324. ORNITHOLOGY
The course will examine the biology of birds. Lecture topics will include a consideration of the anatomy and physiology of birds, ecology and evolution of birds, and avian behavior with specific emphasis on communication, territoriality, courtship and reproductive behaviors, and migration. The laboratory portion of the course will stress identification of birds in the field. Students will be expected to make visual and auditory identification of local avifauna. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102; BI 216 highly recommended.
BI 331WX. CULTURAL, ETHICAL, ECONOMIC, RELIGIOUS, AND POLITICAL ISSUES SURROUNDING SCIENCE AND MEDICINE
This seminar will address the rapid and almost unmanageable speed of breakthroughs in science and medicine that have tested our abilities to keep up with the many cultural, religious, ethical, political, and economic issues that they evoke. Through a case-based study of actual problems and controversies, we will discuss ways to address these issues as concerned individuals and members of a world culture. Included will be such issues as patients’ rights, the use of animals in research, human cloning, stem cell research, screening for human diseases, euthanasia, health care coverage, and access to medical care. Enrollment is restricted by permission of the instructor. Writing intensive (W) Civilizations and Cultures (X).
BI 335. NEUROBIOLOGY
The course will offer students an in depth understanding of the structure and function of the nervous system, in particular, students will be provided with an overview of comparative and human functional and clinical neuroanatomy in preparation for laboratory sessions involving human and comparative neuroanatomy, conducting original laboratory experiments in the area of developmental neurobiology using live animal models, as well as discussions of clinical case studies. In addition, current scientific papers will be presented dealing with breakthrough discoveries in the areas of brain function. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 340. TEACHING MENTORSHIP IN BIOLOGY
Students with at least a 3.0 GPA in their major and who earn an A or a B in a biology course, or by approval of the Department Head, may serve as a teaching assistant for the lab portion of this course in a subsequent semester. The teaching mentee's duties may vary, but a mentee must meet with his/her mentoring professor weekly and attend all laboratory meetings of the course. Student duties will be determined by the course professor and approved by the Department Head. Duties will include: meeting with the professor each week to discuss teaching strategies and assisting the professor by helping prepare specimens, equipment, quizzes and/or practicals, assisting with teaching the lab or recitations, and creating a new lab or recitation. This is a Pass/Fail course. It may only be taken once and it will not count as a biology elective. Registration for this course requires Department Head approval.
BI 351 AND 352. SELECTED TOPICS IN BIOLOGY
2—0—2 TO 3—3—4
Selected topics to be discussed by faculty or visiting professors. Topics will be determined upon adequate student interest. This course will not necessarily be offered each academic year.
BI 353W SUMMER SCHOLARS PROGRAM I
BI 354W SUMMER SCHOLARS PROGRAM II
The Summer Scholars Program is divided into a seminar course and an intensive research experience. Students selected to participate in the program will conduct independent research under the guidance of a faculty mentor and participate in the seminar portion of the course throughout the summer. Permission of department head, only.
BI 390 AND BI 391. INDEPENDENT RESEARCH
0—4—2 TO 0—8—4
These courses are for second classmen pursuing research during the fall and/or spring semesters. Permission of instructor and department head required.
BI 392W AND BI 393W. INDEPENDENT RESEARCH
0—4—2 TO 0—8—4
These courses are for rising first classmen pursuing research during the summer. Permission of instructor and department head required.
BI 401W. SENIOR HONORS THESIS
BI 402W. SENIOR HONORS THESIS
Only senior biology majors who are enrolled in the Institute Honors Program may apply. During the first class year, the cadet will be expected to complete an honors thesis with the criteria, scope, and management of the thesis determined by the department.
BI 404. CELL BIOLOGY
An introduction to cell structure and function including: membrane structure and physiology, functions of organelles, nuclear regulation, role of the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, the cell cycle and cell death. Special emphasis is placed on the molecular biology of cellular processes and on current laboratory techniques including PCR and electrophoretic separation of nucleic acids and proteins. Prerequisites: CH 223, BI 101, and BI 102.
BI 405. HISTOLOGY
Histology is the study of anatomy at the tissue level. This course will examine the characteristics of the four basic tissue types and the structure and organization of organ and organ systems. The laboratory portion of the course will emphasize the identification of different tissue types and organs throughout the body based on tissue composition. This course is highly recommended for those students planning on pursuing a career in medicine. Histology will be offered on an every other year basis. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 410. EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
3—0—3This course is an introduction to the principles and processes of evolution, ranging from population biology to global dynamics. We will explore the wide array of obstacles faced by all creatures, the specifics of and unique scenarios in organismal adaptation, as well as the drivers behind those specific adaptations. Topics will include the theory of evolution by natural selection, patterns of speciation, concepts of fitness and adaptation, the genetic and developmental bases of evolution, basics of systematic and phylogeny, macro-evolutionary patterns, large-scale trends in extinctions, and human evolution. Students will explore primary literature in the field and participate in evidence-based group discussions on the biological evidence laying the foundation for evolutionary principles. Prerequisites: BI 101 and BI 102.
BI 411. IMMUNOLOGY
The course will focus on the human immune system. Students will first develop an understanding of the varied components of the immune system and then learn how those components interact to efficiently recognize and remove foreign invaders. Regulation of immune responses and immunpathologies will also be discussed. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102, and BI 204 or BI 302.
BI 420W. BIOLOGY SEMINAR
This course is required of all biology majors and is a writing intensive course. The course will follow a seminar format and the topics covered will be drawn from a broad range of areas in biology and will emphasize current developments in these areas. Cadets will lead discussions and write summaries for the topic they present. A term paper will be written on a specific area of interest in biology. Prerequisites: Completion of at least one course from each of the four areas and first-class status. Writing Intensive (W).
BI 430. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Pre: BI 101, CH /224/225 (Organic), BC (CH) 421/422, BI 205 (Genetics) or BI 302 (Cell Biology)
BI 490W AND BI 491W. INDEPENDENT RESEARCH
0—4—2 TO 0—8—4
These courses are for first classmen pursuing research during the fall and/or spring semesters. Permission of instructor and department head required.